Cardano 及其掷骰子机制 Ouroboros

security

#1

在思考加密货币的时候,我们应该着重思考保障其安全稳定运行的技术,因为无论市场还是价格等等,全都是建立在技术这一基础之上,这种“信赖的技术”也是加密货币之所以存在的原因。
比特币如何维护其安全的 P2P 协议的稳定和扩张?通过“挖矿”机制。“挖矿”机制为比特币货币系统带来了稳健的维护者,这一维护者的实际角色是“想获得新产币的人”,我们知道这是中本聪取法于自然,天然的货币金银就是像这样挖来的。对于想通过获取金与银来牟利的人来说,去开采它然后卖掉无疑是最佳的方式。但这些“淘金者”是否是金银交易的维护者呢?一定程度上是。因为金银本就需要开采,金银是一种天然金属,所有的金银都是开采来的,开采完毕了,它的总数量才会全部可以流通,而人类之所以采取缓慢地来获得其总量的方式,其完全是由于它的天然属性。然而,实际上维护金银交易的是我们对金银这种牢固可信的“硬通货”的需求。
比特币矿工通过具有竞争力的挖矿争先算出新块的哈希值来维护比特币网络,并获得在该块的新产的币、交易手续费以及块的命名和备注权利。这种机制,被称为 PoW 机制(工作量证明机制)。
PoS 机制(权益证明机制)则有所不同。在那里,交易维护者的角色变为了“想获得这种货币的人”而不是“想获得新产币的人”(即想先获得金银再将其变卖为像法币等其他的货币的人),省却了“挖矿”这一步骤,所有的货币在创世区块中一次产生。而交易维护者们获取报酬的方式很直接,是通过“押注”,本质是一种掷骰子机制,押注越多的人得到的他人交易手续费收益的可能性越大。这是取法于什么呢?取法于赌博。(编辑:表述有误,PoS 中押注的货币并不会失去,更像是催化剂)
我们知道金钱是可以用于赌博的,虽然这是不被提倡的,赌博者虽然想获得金钱,但实际上他们不从事生产,因为虽然赌场创造了收入,赌博者间接也从事了生产,但他们本质上是毒瘤,赌博对于金钱交易的体系来说是不必要的,只不过是一个搅屎棍和麻烦制造者,在中国,赌博是被法律所禁止的,但在世界很多地方它是一种合法的娱乐活动,但当然人们也应该懂得适可而止,无疑赌博无论在世界任何地方都不会被人们视为可靠的获取收入的方式,而且法币体系的不牢靠,往往是由于这些“不必要的生产”(广义的),它们导致了从小到个人倾家荡产,大到国际经济危机的所有一系列问题。
但赌博实际上是一个天然的激励机制的原型。赌博者想要获取金钱,因此他们参与赌博,他们用手中已获得的金钱来在赌博中押注,而手中的金钱呢?是法币,由国家创造和维护了。赌博对于法币体系的维护是多余的。但把天然赌博中的掷骰子机制用在加密货币中就很有用,这是机制设计的跨学科艺术。
金钱是一种哲学:我们为什么需要它?有谁想要获得它?它凭什么稳定?我们怎么信赖?怎样防止漏洞产生?怎么尽量优化成本?Cardano 及其掷骰子机制 Ouroboros 是否会取代 PoW 的历史地位呢?


#2

When thinking about cryptocurrencies, we should ponder the technology that will ensure its safe and stable operation, because market and price, etc., are all based on technology, which is also the reason why the “trusted technology” is also a cryptocurrency The reason for existence.
How does bitcoin maintain its secure P2P protocol for stability and expansion? Through the “mining” mechanism. The “mining” mechanism has brought robust defenders to the Bitcoin currency system, the defender’s actual role being “those who want to get new coins,” and we know that this is where Nakamoto’s natural and natural currencies Gold and silver are digging like this. It is undoubtedly the best way to monetize people who want to profit from gold and silver. But are these “gold diggers” the defenders of bullion trading? To some extent. Because gold and silver need to be mined, gold and silver are a kind of natural metal, all the gold and silver are mined, the mining is completed, its total quantity will be fully circulated, and the reason why humans take it slowly The total amount of the way, it is entirely due to its natural properties. However, in fact, maintaining gold and silver trading is our demand for gold, silver, solid and credible "hard currency."
Bitcoin miners use competing mining efforts to first calculate the hash value of a new block to maintain the bitcoin network and to obtain new coins, transaction fees, and block naming and commenting rights for the block. This mechanism, known as the PoW mechanism (workload proof mechanism).
The PoS mechanism (proof of entitlement mechanism) is different. There, the role of the defender of the deal becomes “the person who wants to get the currency” rather than the “person who wants to get the new currency” (ie, the person who wants to get the gold and silver first and sell it to other currencies like the legal currency ), Eliminating the “mining” step, all of the currency in the creation of a block. The way that defenders get paid is straightforward, with “betting” in the nature of a craps mechanism and the greater the likelihood of those betting more on others’ transaction fees. What is this method? Take method in gambling.
We know that money can be used for gambling. Although this is not to be advocated, gamblers, in spite of their desire to get money, are actually not engaged in production because although casinos generate income and gamblers indirectly engage in production, they Is essentially a cancer, gambling is not necessary for a system of money transactions, it’s just a shit and trouble maker, and in China, gambling is prohibited by law, but in many parts of the world it is a Legal entertainment, but of course people should also know how to stop it. There is no doubt that gambling will not be regarded as a reliable means of obtaining income anywhere in the world, and the unsound legal system is often due to these "unnecessary production "(Broadly speaking), they led to a whole series of problems ranging from small to personal bankruptcies to large-scale international economic crisis.
But gambling is actually a prototype of a natural incentive mechanism. Gambling want to get money, so they participate in gambling, they use the money they have to bet on gambling, and the money in hand? Is a legal currency, created and maintained by the state. Gambling is unnecessary for the maintenance of the legal currency system. But it is useful to use the craps mechanism in natural gambling in cryptocurrencies, which is an interdisciplinary art of machine design.
Money is a philosophy: why do we need it? Does anyone want to get it? How stable is it? How do we trust? How to prevent loopholes? How to optimize the cost? Will Cardano and its rollover mechanism Ouroboros replace PoW’s historical status?

Translated using google translate :slight_smile:


#3

Please watch this seminar of Prof Aggelos at Oxford university.
He talks how Ouroboros is a provably secure PoS protocol

Me personally, I think PoW needs lot of electricity for mining and hence the cost.

If Cardano delivers what it promises, yes, Ouroboros will prove PoS is as good as PoW


#4

有点疑惑为什么 Staking 是取法于赌博。Staking 这个行为并不会减少 ADA,所以在我看来只是一种用金钱换取选票的方式。


#5

@Krishna Agree! PoW is just a more temporary way, with the development must be replaced. I think we can actually reach the moon faster than we think!
I super want to understand that video, I should study hard English! I’m using Google Translate too! :smiley:


#6

@Shunfan 确实!我的表述是有问题的,取法于抽签可能更合适,我记得 Cardano 最初是一个游戏平台(不知道是不是赌博游戏),查尔斯也说在游戏中汲取了一些有用的经验,感觉押注的艾达币有点像催化剂,量越多,产生的收益越大,可以永续工作。:grinning:


#7

感觉赌博其实挺贴切的,Staking这个行为虽然不会减少你手中的ADA数量,但是新挖出来的币会导致你的货币占比降低。在假定整个网络价值与挖矿进度无关的情况下,实际上你手中的ADA已经贬值了,只有那个赌赢了的人赚到了。


#8

Proof of stake is already working quite succesfully. It’s called Neo


#9

我认为你迷失在了一些不必要的隐喻之中去了。
从技术层面讲,矿工收益是为了让大家提供电脑维持网络运转的激励措施,PoW挖矿机制是为了防止恶意节点而不得不承担的成本。
Ouroboros是完全不一样的机制,通过一种安全的选举机制选择一个节点来打包区块,不需要PoW机制来防止恶意节点,但也需要少量的激励来让大家提供电脑维持网络运行。
份额越大,作恶的机会越大,但是损失也越大。


#10

@thbourlove 只有在分发剩余ADA阶段会这样,全部分发完之后占比不变。


#11

@theloniousspunk Neo’s PoS can not prove its security.


#12

@yihuang 同意!