If I download and fund a Daedalus wallet, would hackers potentially be able to see my wallet’s IP address and thus be able to physically locate my laptop (putting it at risk of theft)? Would that risk increase if I leave the Daedalus wallet connected to the Internet 24/7 for proof of stake mining?
Not in the way you are thinking as Daedalus utilizes HBCI port, HomeBanking Computer Interface.
Daedalus encrypts your wallet data so as long as you have a strong password to send value out you are safe.
My2ADA, you should not be running your laptop 24/7, if you are concerned with privacy only run over a VPN, I highly recommend Proton VPN, they have a free tier you should try out, running Daedalus over it.
Also, if you’re like the vast majority of people, you should not be staking as an individual but joining a pool.