New to blockchain and interested in what problems NFTs solve

I understand store of value, and I also understand decentralization is favored over centralization. I am working on envisioning the types of real world applications NFTs have. Are any of the following use cases feasible for Cardano right now? Or am I way off in left field.

Can cardano NFTs be used to certify authenticity of ownership of property?


Pedigrees for show quality stock

Collectors items

Fossils / vinyl records

Proof of Authenticity (seals)

Medical prescriptions


Medical records and history

Patents / copyrights

Trophies / Awards

Transfer secrets

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Hi there and welcome Jonathan,

NFT’s are objects that are uniquely representing abstract notions in a verifiable way. That is, you can trust that once such an representation is made, it will be impossible to copy such a representation. Also since the object is unique ownership of the NFT can easily be determined (also in a verifiable way).

Note that all this trust of these properties emerge from the decentralized nature of blockchains. Where in the real world you may rely on a “trusted” third party to create representations of abstract object. NFT remove the need of such an entity. I think that all of your mentioned objects could be represented in a NFT way. But I must also add to that, is that needed? For example the transfer of secrets can be done via P2P communication that does not need a blockchain. But if you want to have sensorshipless communication (that is no party can mute another party of sending messages), than blockchain is a solution. It all depends on what you to do :slight_smile:

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Thank you for the thorough and concise explanation. That helps!


The artist Kevin Abosch has sold a picture of a potato for $1.5m, made a neon sculpture inspired by cryptocurrency, and even sold his own blood on the blockchain.

So in many ways, entering the world of non-fungible tokens (NFTs) was the next logical step for the 51-year-old Irish artist, whose work explores themes of digital currency and value.

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are electronic identifiers that verify the existence and the ownership of a digital collectible. The technology has been around since at least 2017, and come as an offshoot of the boom in cryptocurrencies, which also run on the blockchain.

But the NFT craze hit frenzied new highs in March when Christie’s, the prestigious art auction house, auctioned off a digital collage by an artist who goes by the name of Beeple for nearly $70m, immediately making him the third-most-expensive living artist in history.

The seemingly meteoric rise of NFTs has many wondering why any collector would want to buy one, but for artists like Abosch, NFTs are helping to solve problems that have long been central to digital art: how do you claim ownership of something that can be easily and endlessly duplicated? And what does ownership of art mean in the first place?

n 2020, Abosch started working on a series of images that tackled themes of cryptography and alphanumeric codes. After several of his in-person shows were cancelled due to the Covid-19 pandemic, Abosch decided now was the perfect opportunity to sell his work as NFTs. He plotted to auction them on OpenSea, the largest marketplace for the tokens, which sees 1.5 million weekly visitors and facilitated $95m in sales in February 2021 alone.

Months later, he made a profit of $2m from the series, all art that cannot be physically transported to a gallery or hung on a wall. It made him the most successful NFT artist on the OpenSea platform. When he spoke to the Guardian on the eve of the sale in March, he said the idea that a piece of art must be a physical purchase that can be displayed somewhere is quickly becoming outdated.

“Some people struggle with this idea because they want to know, what is it you actually own?” he said. “But people of a younger generation don’t struggle with it. It’s a very old-world idea, wanting to hold something in your hand as if the intangible or the immaterial doesn’t have value.”

An NFT auction works much like an online auction on platforms like eBay. Each work is displayed online as a jpeg file that contains metadata – which literally means “data about data” – about the work’s title, number, and who owns it.

Abosch’s 1111 series launched at 11.11 am EST on OpenSea, where he put up 111 works for a set amount of time. After the start of the auction, interested potential buyers go to the page for Abosch’s sale to bid on each work of art individually – in this case using the cryptocurrency Ethereum.

While the NFTs were sold on Opensea, the actual string of characters that attaches the owner to their new NFT is stored on Arweave, a software that fashions itself as a kind of permanent internet by storing files in perpetuity across a distributed network of computers so that they cannot be deleted or destroyed in the future.

Now speaking about NFT in Cardano technology, I have come across platforms doing really well in the sector. I have two big names on my mind. The first is Immunify.Life working in Healthcare sector and other is PhotoChromic doing good in Digital Identity protection.

Immunify.Life: Immunify.Life is a transformative ecosystem secured by blockchain with the mission to transform the landscape of health management and data utilization.
The project leverages the power of Big Health Data and Artificial Intelligence to ensure seamless movement of de-identified patient healthcare data. They have established a strong presence in Africa with a team that has over 60 years of combined experience in the relevant industries.
It is a world-first holistic and self-sustaining ecosystem to solve global health management crises and data collection challenges. Immunify.Life has designed a unique AI-supported incentivized digital disease health registry using immutable NFTs, and secured by blockchain.

PhotoChromic: PhotoChromic is the first intuitive, biometrically managed Self-Sovereign Identity system built on the blockchain. The protocol aggregates biometric liveness, government-backed identity, and unique personal attributes into on-chain NFTs that can be used for Web3 applications and on-chain verification.
The protocol’s intuitive self-sovereign identity system ensures a high level of security and allows for the self-management of users’ online identities. It also enables the verification of true biometric identity linked to one’s physical and digital assets.

Please feel free to share your views about these platforms.


I also had the same question when I started examining the prospects of investing in NFTs. What are the practical uses of them? For example a painting can be exhibited in your living room. A NFT is just an file saved in network. But as I understood the main use is the protection from copyright infringement.

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But most NFTs do not really state that you are buying the copyright. You are basically buying the hash value of the image file (not that you could prevent anyone from broadcasting that hash value).

Even if it would state that it encompasses copyright, it is not clear if any and all jurisdictions would accept that as a valid transfer of copyright, but maybe they would. Too many people on the bandwagon to legitimately say “LOL, your little crypto game does not matter to us.” as a government. (Although I could understand that, given the anti-government and anti-tax sentiment that is the very foundation of Bitcoin. “Protect your rights yourself. You said you could, thanks to this crypto mumble-jumble. Do it!” would seem like a legitimate answer.)

But then it still achieves nothing in terms of copyright protection. In fact, it even opens a new type of infringement: Minting an NFT for someone else’s creation. The blockchain only helps to keep track of transfers of ownership once we accept the very first record of ownership (of whatever) as legitimate. But it helps zero percent in assuring this legitimacy. The marketplaces could do something, but do you know any that ask “Do you have any proof that this ridiculously ugly picture of an anthropomorphic animal thingy is your (or the original minter’s) creation?” before listing it?

But then it still achieves nothing in terms of copyright protection. You can always right click and save. NFTs, crypto and blockchain technology do nothing to prevent piracy. They don’t even try. It’s totally out of scope. They are only concerned with proof of transfers of ownership (of whatever).

You can go to the Twitters and Googles and Youtubes of the world and say: “Look this is my ugly picture!” Exactly the same as you could before. Before they had to check if your claim of copyright is valid. Now they can (more or less) easily see that your claim of NFT ownership is valid, but they have to check if NFT ownership encompasses copyright and if the original minter even had the copyright to transfer it to this blockchain thingy. Big win!