查尔斯给你讲什么是卡尔达诺 ( 一 )


Hi I’m Charles Hoskinson Chief of executive officer of input/output Hong Kong
您好 我是查尔斯霍金森 IOHK的执行总监

and I’m here today to talk a little bit about Cardano

so to understand Cardano first you have to understand where Cardano came from
要了解卡尔达诺 首先你必须了解卡尔达诺从哪里来

so let’s talk about the first generation of cryptocurrencies

so first gen is Bitcoin

and the problem that Bitcoin was trying to solve was really could we create a decentralized money

a decentralized

could we create some sort of token

that lives on some sort of decentralized blockchain maintained by people all around the world

and that token would be scarce and tradable

so when Alice and Bob want to send value to each other

there would be a mechanism for doing that did that did not require
就会有一种机制可以做到这一点 而这个机制不需要一个值得信赖的第三方的中间人

now this was kind of a really cool and interesting idea it had very old roots
这是一种非常酷且有趣的想法 而且它其实有着相当悠久 的根源

starting from the 1980s and beyond

but Bitcoin was really the first to bring this all together and

it was a tremendously successful experiment

after just a few years Bitcoin not only accrued thousands of users
经过短短几年的比特币 不仅累积成千上万的用户

but also started being worth real money

tokens went from less than a penny to actually $1.00

to eventually $100

and right around that time period we saw a huge influx of people saying
并且在那段时间 我们看到大量涌入的人说

boy this is really interesting
天呢 这真的很有趣!

however the issue is that the transaction between Alice and Bob has more than
然而 最后问题在于 爱丽丝和鲍勃之间的交易不仅仅

just the act of moving money associated with it

there’s a story behind that transaction there’s terms and conditions
这项交易背后还有个故事 那就是其中的条款与条件

for example what if Alice says the Bob I’ll give you the money
例如 如果爱丽丝说 鲍勃 我会给你钱

if and only if you mow my lawn

I’ll give you the money if and only if you repair my roof
又或者 我会给你这笔钱 只要如果你帮我修理屋顶

this is a contract this is the story
这是一个合同 这是一个故事

so first generation of technology wasn’t really well suited for this
所以 第一代技术并不是很适合这种状况

every single time someone wanted to make a change to Bitcoin

they would have to build another cryptocurrency

or they’d have to figure out how to install some sort of cumbersome overlay protocol
或者他们必须弄清楚 如何安装某种繁琐的重叠协议

like master coin or color coins
如主币(Master Coin)或彩色币(Colored Coin)

so back in 2014 Vitalik Buterin and myself and many others came together
所以2014年时 V神(Vitalik Buterin)和我和其他许多人聚在一起

and launched the first second generation blockchain and this is Ethereum
推出了第一个第二代区块链 就是以太坊

now Ethereum is kind of like when Java Script came to the web browser
现在以太坊就像当时网页浏览器有了Java Script

we went went from these static simple pages

that were not terribly functional but at least they did something to pages that were fully programmable that
不是那么差劲但至少可工作的 到可完全编程的网页

this and then enabled us to build the Facebook’s the Google’s the Gmail’s
使我们能够建立像现在的脸书 谷歌 Gmail

the experiences we’ve come to know and love

so Ethereum brought a programming language to a blockchain

so this programming language paradigm allowed smart contracts to be written to have customizable transactions

so when Alice sends that value to Bob all those terms and conditions
所以当爱丽丝向鲍勃发送该价值时 所有这些条款和条件

could then be embedded within the transaction and it can be bespoke to her particular needs
都可以嵌入到交易中 并且可以根据她的具体需求而量身定制

now this paradigm like Bitcoin also took off

and now Ethereum is among the largest of crypto currencies and has a huge developer community
现在以太坊是最大的加密货币之一 并且拥有庞大的开发者社区

unfortunately just like Bitcoin we’re starting to enter into a new realm
不幸的是 就像比特币 我们开始进入一个新领域

we’re going into the third generation

where we’ve realized that Ethereum can’t scale to millions of users to billions of users
我们已经意识到 以太坊并不能扩展到数百万 数十亿的用户的

Ethereum doesn’t really have a good developer experience

at Ethereum and all cryptocurrencies have really a bad governance experience right now

where every single time there’s a major disagreement instead of finding a way to resolve it
当每一次有一个很大的分歧 我们并不是找到解决的办法

we end up usually seeing things like a Ethereum or Ethereum classic
最终我们通常会看到诸如 以太坊或以太坊经典

or things like Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash

furthermore there are big sustainability problems in the space
此外 在这个领域还存在很大的可持续性问题

namely after the ICO money is out for a project that’s funded this way

or let’s say the venture capital runs out who will fund and to grow the chain
又或者假设风险资本耗尽 谁将来为区块链成长提供资金

who will fund to actually build out an ecosystem these are big open questions
谁将来为建立生态系统提供资金链 这些都是重大和公开的问题

so the third generation is all about three topics one is scalability
所以 第三代是关于三个主题 一是可扩展性

two is interoperability

and finally there’s this notion of sustainability

so the Cardano project is really our philosophy our vision on how to solve each of these categories in a way
卡尔达诺是我们的哲学和愿景 如何去解决每个类别的问题

that we feel it’s going to inherit the best features and lessons learn from generation one

in generation two but also add a lot of new concepts and technologies in space
和取得之前的教训 但也增添了许多新的概念和技术的愿景

and this project is built with some really good principles namely two –
而这个项目是在于建立 一些很好的原则 其中有两个

first of all the science that guides the solutions to these problems
首先 科学引导问题的解决方案

goes through some notion of peer review

so we go to conferences we write proper scientific papers
所以我们会去参加会议 我们撰写合适的科学学术论文

we engage universities

and all the engineering we have the goal to eventually implement as high assurance code

which means the same types of techniques one would see

with the Shinkansen or a jet engine

where when the failure of the system results in human death

we can apply those techniques to a to our protocols the engineering and development

so that we have a much higher belief in the quality of the code

this avoids events like the Dao Parity hack and other such things as we’ve seen in the space
这就避免了我们在圈子里见到类似以太坊Dao Parity钱包被黑等事件

so let’s go through each of these in more detail starting with scalability
所以让我们从可扩展性开始 并详细介绍其中的每一个

so scalability is kind of a loaded term and it has a heck of a lot of meanings
所以可扩展性是一种负载的术语 它具有很多含义

but from a cryptocurrencies perspective

you can really think of scalability in three different perspectives

so one of scalability in terms of transactions per second

so you’ll often hear people say well bitcoin has seven transactions per second

or Ethereum has 10 or 20 transactions per second

and this new protocol has 200 transactions or 300 transactions per second

this notion of how many transactions are able to get into a block within some finite period of time

but it’s not the only thing that you have to concern yourself with

transactions carry data and as you get more transactions you require more network resources
每个交易都帶有数据 当你获得更多的交易时 你需要更多的网络资源

so there’s also this notion of bandwidth or network

where for a system to scale if it’s going to go to millions and billions of users that system could require
如果系统要扩展到数百万和数十亿用户 那系统可能需要

hundreds of megabytes to gigabytes per second of bandwidth to be able to support all the data flowing through it

this is their common in the enterprise world but not quite where we need to be in the peer-to-peer world
这规模的带宽在企业界很普遍 但在我们点对点的世界并不是

and then finally there’s this notion of data scale

so blockchains store things hopefully forever

and so every time you put a transaction in regardless if it’s relevant or not

it ends up in the log and as you have more and more transactions per second
都在在日志中记载结束 而当你每秒有越来越多的交易

you need more and more data and as a consequence block chains will grow from megabytes
你需要越来越多的数据 因此区块链会从几MB

to gigabytes to terabytes to petabytes
增加到GB 到TB 到PB

and potentially even exabytes

again this is okay in the network world but when we talk about
同样的 这在目前的网络世界里还是可以做到的 但当我们要谈论

a replicated system whose security model relies upon
一个需要复制性 而且其安全模型依赖于

each node having a copy of the blockchain

this is not tractable for consumer hardware devices

so Cardno what we’re trying to do
所以在卡尔达诺 我们正在试图做的是

is figure out ways to solve these problems in a very elegant way
以非常优雅的方式 找出解决这些问题的方法

namely that as we add people to the network

we naturally get more transactions per second we get more network resources
我们自然而然地获得更多的每秒交易 我们获得更多的网络资源

and eventually we’ll get more available overall data storage

without compromising our security model

so let’s talk a little bit about some of the innovations we’ve already brought namely with the throughput

we have developed a peer reviewed white paper

for our provably secure proof of stake protocol

called Ouroboros and Ouroboros is among one of the most efficient consensus protocols in the cryptocurrency space
叫做乌洛波洛斯 目前是加密货币空间中最有效率的共识协议之一

and it’s the first to actually be proven secure in a very rigorous cryptographic way

the magic of Ouroboros is that it’s been designed in a modular way

and it’s been designed with future proofing in its DNA

so namely how Ouroboros works his Ouroboros breaks the world in two epochs

it takes a look at the distribution of tokens and grab it from a source of random numbers
它会查看代币的分布情况 并从随机数字源中获取某个代币

that’s able to hold an election and create slot leaders
这个随机代币将可以成为时隙领导(slot leader)

now these slot leaders functionally do the exact same thing
现在这些时隙领导(slot leader)在功能上相当于

that a miner would do in Bitcoin

so this is basically the same as a person

who discovers a block wins a block in Bitcoin

but the difference is that it doesn’t require the extensive computational resources that Bitcoin requires to construct a block
但它的区别在于 它不需要比特币构建区块所需要的大量计算资源

and as a consequence this system is considerably cheaper to run

even though we still have similar security guarantees that Bitcoin currently enjoys

so it’s a major advancement but the other really interesting thing is that
所以这是一个重大的进步 但另一个非常有趣的事情是这样的

these slot leaders don’t have to just maintain a single block and a single chain
这些时隙领导(slot leader)不必只维护单一的区块和单一的链

they can actually maintain other blocks and other chains

because the cost of constructing a block is so low it’s actually now tractable
因为构建一个区块的成本变得很低 我们就可以很轻松地

to talk about consensus over a range of block chains instead of a single chain
在某范围内的区块链上讨论共识 而并非只能在单一的链上

Furthermore, epochs perhaps could even be run in parallel
此外 纪元(epoch)也许可以平行运行

so instead of having one epochs run and then another epoch run

one going to develop a system using Ouroboros

where epoch run in parallel and transactions are partitioned accordingly
在这里纪元(epoch)可以水平运行 交易将因此进行分区

this effectively means is as you gain more users and your users gain more capabilities
实际上这代表着随著你获得更多的用户 你的用户会获得更多的功能

these slot leaders will be able to maintain more types of blockchains
这些时隙领导(slot leader)将能够保持更多类型的区块链

and also run transaction processing for blockchains in parallel

this is a major advancement the other cool thing is that
这是一个重大进步 另一个很酷的事情是

Ouroboros has very rigorous security standards in terms of its theoretical foundations as well as its implementation

so as a consequence as we develop new capabilities for the protocol these protocol are somewhat composable
因此 当我们为协议开发新功能时 这些协议是可组合的

meaning that these capabilities will also be secure

whereas other systems one has to prove these things on a case in case basis
而在其他系统中 他们必须经逐个案例才能证明

in some cases make major modifications or changes to their system
在某些时候 还得对其系统进行重大的修改或更改

in addition to this we intend on Ouroboros actually being quantum resistance
除了这一点 我们打算让乌洛波洛斯成为抗量子化

sometime in 2018 hopefully

where when the slot leader signs these blocks they’ll be using a quantum resistant signature scheme
让时隙领导(slot leader)签署这些区块时 他们可以使用抗量子签名方案

so we can get even more future proofing into the system

so that’s kind of the first view is how do we construct a way of maintaining the network
所以这是第一种观点 我们如何来构建一种维护网络

that doesn’t cost three hundred thousand dollars an hour

which is what Bitcoin currently costs at the current market rate of five thousand per coin
这是比特币目前的成本 以目前比特币行情每枚五千美金计算

and how do we build a system that allows us to go parallel
以及我们如何建立一个系统 使我们能够平行运行

and also allows us to potentially maintain multiple chains concurrently

this is the heart of Ouroboros

now as we mentioned before one of the most important things when one develops new cryptography
正如我们之前提到的 当开发新的加密时最重要的事情之一

is to make sure that this cryptography is developed in a very rigorous peer-reviewed way

so Ouroboros actually was accepted at crypto 17

where our team went there and to present it and future versions of the protocol
我们的团队到了那里 并提出它和乌洛波洛斯协议的未来版本

continue to go through more rigorous peer-review

giving us a high assurance that the conceptual design of the system is correct
这给了我们高度的保证 确保系统的概念设计是正确的

the other side of it is we’re actually modeling a formal specification of ouroboros using side calculus
另外 我们实际上是使用边微积分来建造乌洛波洛斯的形式规格

which is a wonderful formal modeling language that’s machine understandable
这是一个非常棒的形式建模语言 机器可以理解

that eventually we’re going to be able to connect to the Haskell code in our github repo
最终我们将能够连接到我们的 Github repo中的Haskell代码

and actually show that we’ve correctly implemented the protocol

this is a standard that actually does not exist in our space

and we’re very excited to be the first to bring it to the space

but that’s not the only thing required for scalability

you also need the ability to move large amounts of data at same time

as our network grows from a few hundred transactions per second to thousands

to tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of transactions per second you cannot maintain a homogeneous network topology
到几万次 到几十万次交易 你无法保持同构网络拓扑

in other words you cannot have a situation where every node has to relate every message
换句话说 你不能发生每一个节点跟每一个讯息都是关连著的情况

because there are will be nodes that don’t have those capabilities especially as they grow
总有某些节点并不具备这些能力 特别是随着节点数量的成长

so we’re actually looking at a new type of technology called Rina

and this stands for recursive internetwork architecture
全名为 Recursive Internetwork Architecture (递归的互联网工作架构)

and so Rina is basically a new type of structuring networks

using policies and clever engineering principles

mostly conceived by John Day who’s based out of Boston University

and the goal here is to build a heterogeneous network that gives you similar types of privacy guarantees
这里的目标是建立一个异构网络 给你相似的隐私保证

transparency guarantees scalability guarantees

That you would expect to get from network protocols like TCP IP but do so in a way

where you can actually reason about how the network is going to compose in a formal capacity

so in other words Rina is a major step forward
换句话说 Rina 是向前迈出的重要一步

that will give us a way to very naturally tune and configure Cardano

as it grows from hundreds to thousands to tens of thousands of transactions per second

and something that will very seamlessly connect and interoperate with tcp/ip
以及可与 TCP/IP 无缝连接和互通的

we’re very excited to bring this in part to the Cardona ecosystem

in 2018 and in completely around 2019
约在2018年开始 在2019年左右完成

and we think it will be a big solution to a lot of the network overhead issues that we have

finally we have this notion of data scaling

so this is among the hardest of the problems and it’s one that we’re still examining and looking at
这其实是最难的问题之一 我们仍在研究和审视这个问题

字幕:Mihori, 荒野猎人





这其实是我开始翻的第一部 XDDD

1 Like