Meaning of controlled stake key

Hi community,

It’s my first topic opened here so please be understanding :slight_smile: (if I put this topic in non-perfect location or question is too obvious)

To the point,
we have currently active cardano address:

There is an information about connection between mentioned (above) address and controlled stake key with given hash: stake1uxf53lmw7479rehspdstly4vqmgrtsuzev5nghplh748wrsz8scjy. When I have been observing this stake address - I found info that:

  • it totally controls almost 800M of ADA (at moment of writing this post and it is growing)
  • is not delegated to any pool
  • is lined with around 1600 addresses (mentioned earlier volume in this controlled stake (800M ADA) is sum of current balance of each address lined with this controlled stake)

I am eager to understand the meaning of this stake address. As I mentioned b4, it is named as controlled stake key (on and imho it is some kind of linking between some addresses. But I still don’t understand practical usage of this stake address - can you help me ?

Best regards

Hello @Arek4813

This address seems to be grouped with a lot of addresses since the Byron era. It has over 100k transactions. I can’t say for sure, but this looks like a wallet belonging to a crypto exchange (not sure which one, there are 100’s of them).

Just the sheer amount and consecutive speed of some of those transactions tells me that process is either automated and/or large amount of people are involved. Also, the amount of variable NFTs in there makes me think that it’s an exchange wallet, since exchanges get a lot of NFTs sent to them by accident (as you can see from posts in this forum :smiley:) and many exchanges do not offer services to get you NFTs back. They just consider them lost.

However, as I mentioned, this is just a guess. Unless you can link one of those addresses to an exchange receive address (which is possible, but time consuming).

Hello @Neo_Spank, thank for your reply.

I also have an intuition that this address is lined with a crypto exchange.

So, all in all, probably the only usage of this stake address is grouping big amount of addresses and nothing more, yup ?

Where did you find this info about Byron genesis of involved addresses and over 100k of transactions? There I found only Shelly genesis (because they start with addr1) addresses:

and sum of tx_count of all involved address is at least 10 times lower that 100k - I checked on blockchain and it is between 6 and 7k of transactions.

I just look trough wallets and found bunch that were staring with Ae2 and DDzFF, those are Byron era wallets. Also, if you follow those wallets you will see a lot more transactions.

Maybe I don’t understand your methodology but please give me example of Byron era wallets lined with stake address stake1uxf53lmw7479rehspdstly4vqmgrtsuzev5nghplh748wrsz8scjy because I cannot find any non-Shelley address there.

Just click on the wallets and follow transactions. You’ll get:
And if you click on transactions of listed wallets you will see they have a lot of Ae2 transactions as one of transaction even with todays dates as inputs for that wallet. There is no way that all those are user wallets of Byron era being used so often and so many of them today. This must have been automated account creation system back from 2 years ago.

Yeah, I agree with you that address addr1q8g77agasft90nnrln487665tf4nz9tt0z9df0l5z637yavnfrlkaatu28n0qzmqh7f2cpksxhpc9jefx3wrl0a2wu8qu5g9nq
has a lot of inputs from Byron genesis.

But earlier I was talking about addresses lined only with this stake address
Screenshot from 2021-12-16 12-04-59

There I can observe only Shelley era addresses (on all of 33 pages) - I cannot put the link once again (forum rules) but I posted it earlier (clicking View All Addresses which is visible on screen above lead you to this link).

So, putting it all together, probably the only usage of this stake address (stake1uxf53lmw7479rehspdstly4vqmgrtsuzev5nghplh748wrsz8scjy)
is grouping big amount of Shelley era addresses and nothing more, yup ?

All of the addresses under one stake key are basically considered the same wallet (and associated with same Shelly era keys)…


In Shelly Era all wallets generate a stake key (that’s considered controlled stake key).
Then after you register your key by giving 2 ADA key deposit and delegating your status in Cardano Scan becomes active.

Also, as wallet is being used it generates bunch of addresses for change due to EUTxO model. That’s why you see a lot of 2 transaction addresses in there with 0 balance.

For regular users, wallet software generates all those addresses. Daedalus, for example, can have over 2 billion addresses just for one wallet (under 1 stake key). Wallet software is made to generate Shelly wallet addresses (at the moment) to make it all up to date.

“Automated” wallets, which are basically just programs that generate and interact with transactions, can generate any era wallet. One program can generate Byron address as well as Shelly address for moving ADA around. However, only Shelly address types are associated with a stake key. So, when Cardano Scan (or other data aggregation programs) search the blockchain ( or data base) under stake key they will show only Shelly era since info is already under IsShellyBasedEra type or it will search under just those keys.

So, to see all the funds and transactions you have to look at all addresses generated by that program. Otherwise, you may have a case where some scans report more/less (depending on a scan) funds or transactions associated with that “automatic” wallet.

Hopefully, I understood what you were asking. If not just ignore this TL:DR section :innocent:


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Thank you for your reply. Fortunately, we understood each other and my problems and doubts are solved. Have a nice day :smiley:

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